Category Archives: Uncategorized

Web developer needed: we are hiring!

Job title: Web developer
Salary: Fixed Fee £1,000
Location: Remote

Who we are

Language Landscape is a not-for-profit organisation based in London, UK which aims to raise awareness of language diversity.

We run a website (www.languagelandscape.org) and outreach programmes to bring together language communities online, to help people to better understand the languages spoken around them and to help to raise the profile of minority and endangered languages.

The website enables everyone with an internet connection to add language recordings to a world map. By mapping recordings where they are made, we can build a better picture of the current geographical spread of languages. Other users can then access the recordings by browsing or searching the map.

Job Role and Responsibilities

We are looking for a developer to update the code for the backend of the website in order to make it more secure and functional. The website is currently running on Django 1.4 (2012) and on Python 2.7 which are both no longer supported. The site also needs to be migrated to another host. The estimated time frame for updating and migrating the website is 2-4 weeks and would need to be completed by the end of October 2020.

Depending on the level of interest, there will also be more work available in the future as we seek to develop the site further and add additional features.

 

Key requirements (qualifications and skills)

-          Experienced in working with Python, Django and Word Press

-          Experienced in migration of databases to a new server

-          Experienced in developing digital maps and databases

-          Interest in languages (optional)

 

Application

Please send a CV and a 1 page expression of interest to admin@languagelandscape.org by 17:00 on Monday 28th September, 2020.

Remote fieldwork in post-pandemic times

In the ideal world, linguistic fieldwork always stems from the needs of the language community, whereupon the speakers themselves, aware of the loss of their language, or its uncertain status, invite a linguist to work with them, and set the agenda for such work. Everyone – the speakers and the linguist – is equally invested, and the work benefits all.
Does the ideal world exist? I have heard of very few cases like the one above. Too few and far between to be the norm, and certainly not a norm at all for how doctoral programs, postdocs and funding agencies operate.

My case is, I think, more typical of what usually goes on in the field. I have done a PhD on a language in Ecuador, having had a theoretical interest in a phenomenon which this language exhibits, and contacts in the country who suggested I should work there, not least because they knew someone in the community.

The speakers accepted me, and eventually we got together a really interesting documentation project, but at no point was documenting the language my co-workers’ most pressing concern. They had much more serious issues to take care of, such as being able to support their families. Or the environmental degradation of their traditional hunting grounds. Or the fact that they live in one of the few villages in the area that still doesn’t get phone signal…
After I finished my PhD, I kept in touch with my consultants, and would gladly go back there to work, but the reality of funding is that doing more than one project with the same community, or on the same language variety, is not really possible, unless the language is extremely typologically rare or severely endangered. Or – even better – both.

So, wanting to do more fieldwork, but also wanting to have a chance to actually get a grant, I decided to try to work on a related language, spoken not too far away. Learning the ropes of how a different speaker community works is easier, at least, then figuring out how to do fieldwork in a completely new country. This also means saving resources and decreasing chances of failure, which is important from the funder’s perspective. I also counted on being able to get some contacts once I went on my first fieldwork trip.

And then the pandemic happened.

And here I was, a few days ago, having used my contacts to get in touch with someone in the ‘new’ community, talking to this potential collaborator on zoom. I showed him the language archive website and the deposit in it, shared screen to explain what ‘transcription in ELAN’ is, demonstrated my language skills acquired during fieldwork, explained the project’s goals and budget…

It felt like a job interview. And, actually, it felt right. Or much better, at least, than going into the field and giving all this information, or some of it, to a group of people who are kind enough not to kick you out once you’ve come across the world, irrespective of whether they like your project, or not. This time I felt like if the community doesn’t want to work with me, they will feel free to say so, and just not get in touch with me again. If they don’t like my project goals, they will actually have a chance to change them, since I might not be able to go there, and the funding agency is also more likely to be flexible than in other circumstances.

It felt strange. It made me feel insecure. And yet it felt so profoundly right.
Maybe this pandemic will be a chance for us, and other fieldwork-based disciplines to really, truly, re-think our fieldwork practice. And, in 2020 and the years to come, to actually be serious about abandoning the post-colonial paradigms still pervasive in how fieldwork often operates. Now that we have no other choice, from half a world away, maybe we can truly foster ‘documentation BY the community’. I truly hope we’ll take that chance.

Quarantine entertainment featuring minority languages

COVID-19 has us all looking for alternative entertainment to fill the long days and evenings. We thought it would be a good opportunity to check out some media that feature minority and endangered languages, as well as alternative approaches to storytelling. Here are our top picks.

Enjoy, and let us know what you think!

Sami Blood (2016)

Sami Blood (Swedish: Sameblod) is a 2016 Swedish coming-of-age drama written and directed by Amanda Kernell. The film is set in Sweden in the 1930s and concerns a 14-year-old Elle-Maria who experiences prejudice at a school for Sami children in northern Sweden, and decides to make an attempt at becoming a part of the mainstream society she looks up to, which forces her to abandon her own heritage.

Available on Amazon Prime

Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner (2001)

Directed by Inuit filmmaker Zacharias Kunuk, it was the first feature film ever to be written, directed and acted entirely in the Inuktitut language. The film retells an Inuit legend, revolving around Atanarjuat, whose marriage with his two wives earns him a powerful enemy, and launches a story of a vendetta that becomes a story passed through centuries of oral tradition.

Available for rent on iTunes

Ixcanul (2015)

A Guatemalan drama directed by Jairo Bustamante and narrated entirely in Kachiquel. The protagonist is a young woman, Maria. While her parents want to marry her off to a wealthy farmer, Maria is romantically involved with a boy from her village. As her lover makes plans to leave Guatemala for the United States, Maria has to face a different kind of a challenge. Ixcanul was nominated for an Oscar in the Best Foreign Language Film category.

Available on Amazon Prime

Unorthodox (Limited series 2020)

Based on a 2012 book by Deborah Feldman, Unorthodox is a series that follows the life of Esther Shapiro, a young Hasidic Jew from New York, as she separates herself from her tight-knit community and tries to find a way of living that would truly suit her. Extensive parts of the mini-series are recorded in Yiddish.

Available on Netflix for a limited time

Never Alone (Kisima Ingitchuna)

Never Alone is a video game, described by its creators as “the first game developed in collaboration with the Iñupiat and narrated entirely in Iñupiat. Nearly 40 Alaska Native elders, storytellers and community members contributed to the development of the game.¨You can play as a young Iñupiat girl, or as her arctic fox companion, following them on the adventure to find the source of a blizzard which threatens their very survival. The narrative is based on an Iñupiat legend, and the game also features short videos about the different aspects of Iñupiat culture.

Available for download on mobile devices visit: http://neveralonegame.com

Meet a Fieldworker: Eleanor Ridge

In May 2019, Eleanor Ridge and I sat down and had a conversation about the role technology plays when conducting linguistic fieldwork. Eleanor talks about using apps like SayMore for collecting metadata, language anotation tools like ELAN, and FLEx, as well as the importance of transcription and innovations in the field, and how connectivity (internet and phone) affects one’s ability to do fieldwork in remote island locations. This conversation is contextualised within her experience of conducting linguistic research on the Vatlongos language of Southeast Ambrym Island in Vanuatu. Eleanor is currently based at Massey University, University of New Zealand. Some of her recordings are available through her Language Landscape project page ‘Vatlongos SEAYou can follow her on twitter: @eleanor_ridge

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ED: I am talking to Eleanor Ridge.
ER: That’s me.
ED: Hi Eleanor.
ER: Hi Ebany.
ED: Could you tell me a little bit about the type of field work you have conducted and where you have done your fieldwork?
ER: Yes, I certainly can. So, my main bit of fieldwork has been for my PhD and I’ve been working on Vatlongos language which is also known as South East Ambrym in the literature, and it is spoken in Southeast Ambrym island in Vanuatu. It’s an Oceanic language and it’s closely related to Paamese, another language on the island opposite. My project has been documentation and description, but particularly paying attention to variation between different speaker communities because it is spoken both in South East Ambrym and in a community called Mele Maat, which is just outside the capital of Port Villa. They relocated there in the 1950s following a volcanic explosion. So I’m looking at the differences between how language is spoken in those two communities.

ED: When was the last time you went and did fieldwork?
ER: The very last time I was there was in August last year (2018) because I was in Vanuatu for a conference and I managed to squeeze in a couple of weeks on the island and a week in Mele Maat which was really nice. I was finishing up my thesis at the point so it was a good opportunity to ask some final questions and get a couple more stories as well. Before that I did two chunks of six months in 2014-15 and 2016-17.

ED: So you started visiting them in 2014?
ER: Yeah, that was the first time I went to Ambrym but I had worked in Vanuatu before which is what originally got me into linguistics, because I was teaching on Pentecost Island and learned Apma language, the language of Central Pentecost at that point. That was when I decided that I really like languages and that they’re really fun, and that I wanted to come back and study that for my Masters.

ED: So what does fieldwork look like for you when you’re on site?
ER: Because I’m working on two different sites, it looks very different when I’m on the island compared to when I’m working with the urban community. So when I’m on the island it’s maybe more what people expect when you say ‘fieldwork’. I’m staying with a host family who are wonderful. Well two host families. I live with Madleen and Simeon in Moru and their kids, and they’re brilliant. They also do transcription work and organize sessions for me. They provide lots of their expertise as well as their hospitality. There what normally happens is that Simeon organizes for me to visit different villages, so I got recordings in every village that Vatlongos is spoken in in South East Ambrym. Simeon was organizing that for me, and arranging things in advance. He made sure that announcements were made in advance. A typical day would be, get up, have breakfast, set off to do some recordings, arrive in the village, make sure everyone knows we’re there, they come and share their stories. Certainly, that’s what it was like in the first fieldtrip, and increasingly I was also asking more guided elicitation questions about things that I wanted to see if they varied in different villages. Then we would go back home and I would upload my recordings in the evenings. The evening would also be used for some transcription work. I’m quite pleased about how the transcription worked.

ED: Yeah?
ER: Because we were moving between two communities I wanted to make sure we had independent transcription so that I didn’t need to be there in order for transcription to be taking place. Because it just wouldn’t be very efficient. So what I did was use the auto-segment feature in SayMore to automatically segment, which saves a lot of time. If you’ve ever used ELAN to segment manually you’ll know that. Then I use that to generate mp3s that Madleen and Simeon had on their mobile phones. They could then listen to each track, each track had a code and a number, and that meant that they were writing it up down in their books and I could type it up so that it was all time-aligned. So that’s often how we spent the evenings which is fun, and we would have lots of discussions about things that come up.

ED: Yeah, sounds fun, and that reminds me that you were really good about uploading things to Language Landscape for one, but also keeping really on top of technologies and social media while you were in the field.
ER: Yes, I was good at that wasn’t I?
ED: You were excellent.
ER: Especially during my second fieldtrip and after that. I wanted to do some awareness raising. I’m lucky and it’s a thing about a lot of communities in Vanuatu are very open, certainly in the Vatlongos community, people are just really keen to share their stories. Often when you’re doing fieldwork you have to think very carefully about anonymity. Sometimes there are restrictions on who is allowed to hear certain stories and that sort of thing. In the community I’m in, people really want their stories to be shared and they want their authorship to be acknowledged while doing that. I put a lot of videos up on YouTube with people’s permission and people were really keen for that. It worked really well for getting some enthusiasm for the project in the urban Mele Maat community where people have more internet access. Especially with young people in Mele Maat who are less likely to speak the language. This was a way of getting them really engaged with the project so that worked really well. Increasingly I’m aiming to archive and I’m hoping that will be the means to spread it from now on, but that’s been a fairly slow process. It’s increasingly happening. I have a project up with Pangloss and I’m working with ELAR to get stuff up on ELAR as well as the moment. Sharing stuff on YouTube is very effective though and I was able to produce subtitles very quickly because of that transcription process.

ED: So you would say that definitely using the more up-to-date software like SayMore streamlined the whole process more?
ER: Definitely, it was just really time saving. It meant I could produce subtitles really easily. I could have subtitles that were both the language and English, or the language and Bislama. We were also using Bislama, the national language, for transcription as well. Especially for semi-speakers in Mele Maat, it’s really useful to show the worth of the language but also make it accessible for people who maybe don’t understand straight away.

ED: Yeah, so just a recap on the languages…you have Bislama…
ER: Yeah, Bislama is the national language. It’s a pidgin English. Nearly everyone in Vanuatu speaks Bislama. That’s a really good way to get recordings accessible to the entire community and also semi-speakers of other languages of Vanuatu who would be interested in the stories. Maybe family and friends as well. Then you have English and French which are both languages of education in Vanuatu but in the Vatlongos speaker community, nearly everyone speaks English as their language of education. Practically everyone.

ED: And when you’re there what languages are you using?
ER: Because I already spoke Bislama, I spoke Bislama as the language of communication when I first arrived. Increasingly I speak Vatlongos. On the second trip and last August I was mostly speaking Vatlongos with the people who wanted to. Sometimes in Mele Maat though, if people are not confident in speaking Vatlongos you can sometimes put them on the spot. So it’s good to speak Bislama anyway.

ED: So for the people who are quite comfortable speaking Vatlongos, does you speaking it change your interaction at all?
ER: Generally people are really really enthusiastic if I’m speaking Vatlongos, but there’s also that feeling about Bislama as well. I think if people are used to dealing with outsiders, especially white outsiders, they’ll often start in English and that can be kind of nerve racking for people and also they really appreciate that you’ve made the effort to learn the language of Vanuatu. Even more so when it’s the local language.

ED: And what about meeting people? You said people are quite keen to share their stories, is it easy to make friends and approach people?
ER: Yes, definitely. Vanuatu is a really great place for that. Everyone wants to know what you’re up to. Everyone is really keen to talk about what they’re doing. It’s really easy to meet people as long as you’ve got a language which you can have those conversations in. People are really keen to discuss those things, and there’s a lot of pride in the culture. A lot of pride in local stories, local crafts and those types of things. It’s great, it’s very easy for me. I don’t have to do much persuading or too much work to show why the language is worth recording. People absolutely believe it already. There’s never any kind of queries of “But why are you interested in that?” The worth of the language is really self-evident to people which is great.

ED: That is really great.
ER: I know!
ED: Yeah, that’s not always the case.
ER: Exactly, and I so feel for people who have to do more work than I do on that.
ED: But you just have to run with it. That’s why you can do such great documentation.
ER: It does mean that the whole process has been much quicker and I have pretty sizeable corpus for the amount of time that I’ve been spending on it for that reason. Also because of how amazing Madleen, Simeon and Bell have been on transcription.

ED: So going back to the technology theme, obviously tech is constantly evolving. What are some things that could come up in the future that you would want to work with to improve the fieldwork process?
ER: I’m really interested in some of the projects that are coming up where people are working with automatic transcription based on a test area. I want to speak to some of the projects that are working on that like ELPIS and PERSEPHONE. This is a process that is getting more and more efficient all the time and there are a few groups that have different ways of implementing it. Basically, you have to do transcription and transcribe these languages up to a certain point, and then with a certain number of hours of recording you would then be able to train software for that to happen automatically. Then you would be able to record. It’s never going to be perfect, but you can use that as a base and then tidy it up. So then if it’s getting, I think some of the figures I’ve heard is 80% right, and then you can just go through and tidy them up. That would be hugely time saving. Interesting in itself, I think it would help you spot things that you might not spot otherwise, which would be cool.
ED: There’s a guy in Germany who has been working on the software to do that with Uralic languages.
ER: Yeah and there are some people in Australia who have been working on it. There are lots of people working on that and I think it would be amazing. It would mean that any documentation project would immediately have transcripts. It would make those first 8 hours of transcription even more important and you could then expand and be able to access all of these other things that people produce themselves. You would be able to access data more easily. It would no longer be the case that you would have to make do with quite small corpora either. You could end up with big corpora and you could ask the types of questions we ask of larger languages which I think would be great.

ED: Yeah, and obviously time is a critical issue for these smaller languages. Is the technology in any way accessible to speakers? Or how accessible is it?
ER: You mean the technology I’m using now? SayMore?
ED: Yeah.
ER: At the moment this will vary depending on where people are working and the access they have to computing and power. Many people have laptops. Some of these programs are quite power and memory hungry though so that doesn’t always work that well. ELAN is not very easy to access. There is a very steep learning curve with that. Whereas SayMore is much easier I think. I did take a laptop out with me that people are using for other things. It wasn’t really powerful enough to use SayMore and it wasn’t immediately obvious to people what it was useful for, so they weren’t that keen to learn. That’s why we kept to pen and paper most of the time for transcription. I can see that there would be situations where people would want to do that for themselves. Especially for subtitles and things. That would be clear what the use is in that instance. Mostly if you have some really enthusiastic people who are interested in the linguistics of the project and how that works, I think these are really amazing tools for teaching that. Things like FLeX like I’ve been using, which is a lexical database software, is brilliant for teaching those types of things. Unfortunately, I haven’t had anyone on the project who has wanted to take it to that level, but I would be really keen to take that on if anyone was keen. What it does instead is make it really easy to generate outputs that are accessible to the community. One thing that I’ve had success with which I was sharing when I was out in August was a dictionary app that you can generate automatically from FLeX, and that was something that when I was on the previous fieldtrip, a lot of teachers had been asking for because we had been trying to implement vernacular education for years 1-3. We now have the materials which is fantastic, but a lot of the teachers are not very confident with the spelling system, and they’re not very confident with their own reading and writing in Vatlongos. That was something they were asking for, a dictionary and in particular anything on a computer or a mobile phone. Many more people have mobile phones than have laptops, so anything on a mobile app is much more useful. That’s been really well received and is something I want to work on further to develop proper definitions and add photos and more of that sort of thing.

ED: So there are things like electricity and basic commodities?
ER: It’s all via solar power so you do have electricity. It’s improved drastically in the few years that I’ve been going out there. The first time I was out there were two stores that I knew of where I could take my laptop and get it charged, maybe in a few days. At the time I wasn’t able to upload everything straight away from the recording. Increasingly individual families have solar panels and car batteries for charging things. That’s also something that because my host family refused to accept any rent, I’ve been trying to give gifts of suitable value to show my gratitude. That is what I did on the second trip. I managed to get solar panels that were cheap enough that it was within the right bracket. Now Madleen and Simeon have solar panels and that’s worked really well and has made it much easier for me. It’s really useful for them as well.

ED: What about things like internet and communication?
ER: That is also something that has improved vastly since I first went there. The first time I went there was no internet access at all. Mobile phones worked which was good, but you would have patchy reception. They built a new communication tower recently between my two fieldsites which has been really good. During the second fieldtrip I could get mild 3G network which was really awesome. Especially because my dad got married and I was able to receive some photos of his wedding which was great.
ED: That’s lovely!
ER: Yeah! It makes a big difference to how connected you feel.

ED: Which is important when you’re doing fieldwork.
ER: Yeah, definitely, definitely. Because I’m moving between two communities, I haven’t found that too challenging because I’m not really on the island for more than 2-3 weeks. I’m on the island and then I’m back in town and the cycle repeats so I’m never that isolated. When I’m in Mele Maat, I stay in town in a guest house. Actually, last time I was out I was able to stay with a friend who was renting a house just by Mele Maat which was incredible good fortune. It was a bit harder to do some of the spontaneous recordings that I do when I’m staying on the island. Also, in Mele Maat lots of people have 9-5 jobs which makes it harder to pin people down. I found that I had to spend twice as much time in Mele Maat or Port Vila compared to the island and I still had far fewer recordings there than I had on the island. It’s just that it’s harder to make progress. It took a bit more effort and planning to get stuff done there.
ED: Yeah, it’s not about the amount of time you spend in a certain place, and more about the connections you make with people.
ER: Yeah exactly. There’s also limitation on things like, I can’t travel at night. I would need to have a car to be able to do that confidently because the buses are a bit dangerous at night. So that’s a big restriction because I know that I need to leave at about 4 o’clock in the afternoon. I can’t spontaneously follow up on those connections so building those connections takes longer on Mele Maat than on the island as well.

ED: I think we’re going to wrap things up now. Is there anything you else you would like to share along the same theme of technology and communication?
ER: I think it’s been really interesting to see how those technologies have been embraced, or not, and be able to see it within two communities at the same time. One that has had internet access for quite a while now and where Facebook is hugely popular now, and another where that’s just starting. It’s been good to see how that works with people and how it shapes the way people use language in terms of the language they choose to do Facebook status updates in Bislama or English, but then maybe the comments will be in smaller languages. It’s really fascinating. Also seeing how those platforms can serve as opportunities to use and support more language groups has been very interesting.

ED: Have you seen any age-related patterns within social media platforms?
ER: Yeah, I know lots of older people who are using facebook and who really love it, but it’s particularly popular amongst younger people in the urban areas. You also see a lot of people talking about how it’s really popular among young people in urban areas. There are plenty of joke posts and memes about people staying up late.

ED: Ah, they’re creating memes as well?
ER: Yeah yeah, there are Vanuatu memes. I’ve even seen things about specific people. The other thing that is great which wasn’t a thing when I first started, is that I now get updates when I’m not in the field about how people are doing and what is happening. The only time that I’ve seen Vatlongos used is after people have died, so I get to hear about those things, which is upsetting but also helps me feel more part of the community. People will do pictures of people with kin terms on them in Vatlongos, and certainly Bislama is used everywhere.

ED: Yea, it’s good that you’re able to feel connected even at a distance, just like we are able to do this interview at a distance! Thank you so much for taking the time to chat about your fieldwork experience. It’s been a real treat.
ER: Anytime! It’s been great to talk about my experiences!

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Glossary:
Data Elicitation – A data collection technique used in the social sciences. In linguistics, the practice of ‘eliciting’ information or data, involves asking questions or using stimuli to collect linguistic data.
Interlinearization – The process of providing a morpheme by morpheme translation, or glossing, of a word or utterance.

Meet a Fieldworker: Willem Adelaar

The year 2019 has been named by the UN as the year of indigenous languages, and to commemorate this Language Landscape will be hosting a series of events around the topic of what it means to speak an ‘indigenous language’, multilingualism and the movement and representation of language around the world. These events will be hosted in and around London, Oxford, Cambridge and Glasgow, and if you are interested in hosting your own Language Landscape event, we are open to the opportunity to collaborate wherever you may be in the world! 

Since Language Landscape (LL) came together in 2013, our aim has been to challenge preconceptions of where languages might be spoken around the world, and notions of monolingual nations. This has been done by thinking about how language can be represented in a visual form in a geographical context. Thus, when visiting the LL map, it is possible to find examples of language being used ‘outside their country of origin’. A search for Chinese on LL for example reveals that there is representation in at least ten different countries. Likewise, the project Czech it Out! boasts examples of spoken Urdu, Slovenian, Bulgarian and Russian in Czechia. In this way, viewers can also find examples of indigenous and endangered languages like Náhuat-Pipil in El Salvador, Tz’utujil in Guatemala, Taiyal in Taiwan, Nez Perce in the USA to name a few examples.

In addition to the events which will be published at a later date, we are also starting a new blog series titled ‘Meet a Fieldworker’, where we will speak to different types of researchers who have worked with indigenous language and speech communities around the world, and who can offer a unique insight into what language means to people of diverse communities. We start the blog series with an interview with Willem Adelaar (WA) Professor Emeritus of Amerindian Languages at Leiden University and we discuss how linguistic fieldwork on languages has changed over the past few decades. Adelaar conducted fieldwork in the Andean and Amazonian regions of South America in the 1960-70s, and he talks about how technological advances have changed the way in which research is conducted, as well as how ethical considerations have expanded to include collaboration with members of language and speech communities as well as researchers from other disciplines. We hope you enjoy read!

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ED: How are things different now compared to when you conducted fieldwork?

WA: If I had to do fieldwork now, I would need to familiarize myself with a number of technical issues, including modern ways of archiving. I could do fieldwork like I did in the 60s/70s, but we used to build our archive on paper, in a notebook and on system cards. Now, for example, you are expected to use a computerized archiving programme, which I would have to learn. My recordings are now in a digitized archive, but this is thanks to project funding specifically focused on archiving pre-digital data. I was a guinea pig of sorts. When it comes to fieldwork however, people now have to prepare for it in a different way.

ED: Are the methods of fieldwork different?

WA: In a sense they are. More technical assets are now available. We used to rely on fieldwork manuals such as Hockett, Samarin, Pike and Nida. We used relatively large and clumsy tape recorders, which sometimes would refuse service in the sunshine. But technology has developed since then. We now have advanced recording equipment, computers and video recorders. Handbooks such as the one by Gippert, Himmelman, and Mosel provide an overview of the possibilities of modern language documentation. However, continuing to conduct this type of field-based research also presupposes large and complex documentation projects for which the funding has now largely dried up (e.g. Volkswagen Foundation and ELDP). Fieldwork in the US particularly is more successful in smaller projects.

ED: How have ethics changed?

WA: Ethics was not an important issue in the past. Now it is more relevant, in some countries such as Australia, and also at EU level, but not necessarily so much in other countries like the Netherlands. Sometimes the issue of ethics still requires a content, and this may take time to resolve.

ED: Why might ethics be an issue today?

WA: Researchers now have recognized that previous ways of working were insensible to ethical considerations. We now recognize that we should give something back to the community so now we attempt to do so. But that I would argue is plain decency. So before the view was that you couldn’t do anything because you were only paid for research, without space for additional activities focused on speaker communities. Today people are free and less free in some ways. There are academic restrictions (teaching obligations, administrative tasks, etc.), things are more organized, there is more competition. There is still no organized system today for providing or giving back to the community. Projects are temporary, they create an infrastructure for 2-3 years, then disappear. If you are in a situation where you can’t give back, then you simply don’t. No one else will do it for you. But modern researchers do what they can to give back to the communities. These are also more demanding and rightly so.

From my own experience of gathering lots of data over several years, you would hope that people in the communities would become interested and involved in the documentation and the revival of their languages. This interest however has to come from the locals themselves. Together, you can combine the know-how and eagerness for action e.g. within indigenous populations who speak the language. It is true that the exposure of speakers to the presence of linguists in their communities has often changed their attitude and made them more conscient of the importance of rescuing a linguistic heritage.

Another thing that has changed very much is the idea of multidisciplinary research. Before you hardly talked to each other, as a linguist you rarely met an archaeologist or an anthropologist. You were completely different creatures. Now you at least try, but it still isn’t easy. Money also plays a role within this dynamic. If you have access to a lot of funding, you also have to use it in an adequate way. You can form a diverse research team. It gives you the feeling of strength and support. We should also listen to each other and learn from each other. Look at historical reconstruction for example. Before, our research was focused on rigid synchronic description, but now you know for example that a phoneme is no more than a theoretical construct and that each sound has a history. The historical background is significant for understanding the present. Morphological and phonemic structures differ, and you can see there is an ongoing change taking place in a language. We realize this more now whereas before it was a deadly sin to combine synchronic and diachronic research. Now you can think about the history of what you are seeing. Similarly if you are looking at a specific language, you need to consider the context of the languages that surround it. Language contact is part of your perspective on language.

In my case, I would have liked a local group to take over the work I did. As a European in my case, research was for me and for linguistics. If you are dealing with a large community, you cannot talk to everyone. But really the impact of research has to spread like an oil stain. It has to sink into the local environment, and this is what is often lacking. In some parts there are local interested and concerned people, for instance, teachers or retired civil servants who try to do something with the local language, but this can also go wrong e.g. in the case of the Cuzco Language Academy, whose authority is not accepted by linguists. For this to work, indeed, local efforts should also collaborate with science. Nonetheless continuity is more easily obtained with such institutions. Furthermore, it is often easier to do this with smaller groups as it is being done in Brazil, where language experts within a specific language community can receive training and as a result, can always be available to the language community. But this is more difficult with larger language groups like the case of Mexican Nahuatl.

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More information about W. Adelaar’s work can be found here.

What does your mother language mean to you?

We each have different linguistic repertoires and ways of defining what our mother tongues mean to us. On this day let’s share and celebrate our differences. What does your mother tongue mean to you? Our directors, Charlotte Hemmings, Ebany Dohle, Samantha Goodchild and Karolin Grzech answer this question:

CH: On International Mother Tongue Day, we are reflecting on what our mother tongues mean to us. My mother tongue is English, which is incidentally also my “father tongue” and the language used by the vast majority of my family. It is something that I rarely think about – perhaps because I have the luxury of living in a country where English is the national language and working in an academic field where English is the de-facto language of wider communication. As a result, I have focused more on learning new languages, and thought more about how the languages I learn and study reflect different aspects of my life and different facets of my identity. Nonetheless, English plays an important role in almost everything I do and is the language that I use on a day-to-day basis for most things. Therefore, it seems fitting this International Mother Tongue Day to celebrate it!

ED: This idea of a mother tongue or native language is one that I have always struggled with. I grew up with four different languages around me (Spanish, German, Portuguese and English) and in light of different experiences in each of these languages during the course of my life, I have developed different levels and types of proficiency in each. In the most literal sense, my mother tongue, my mother’s language, is Spanish. It is the language that connects me to my family and my cultural heritage. German, is my father’s language, and through it I connect with his family and without feeding into stereotype, my own sense of personal and professional development. Portuguese is the language of the country I grew up in. It is the language I learned to relate to others and develop social relationships in. It represents laughter, friendship and leisure. Finally English is the language of education, the language I have developed into an adult in and the language which has provided many opportunities to travel and expand in academic spheres. It is the language for self-expression and my go-to language for writing. Our languages and the choices we make to speak them can be deeply personal. It is thanks to the contrast of these languages that I am able to better understand myself and fully appreciate the diverse contexts in which languagage are spoken. There are complex social, political and economic dynamics at the heart of each choice, and I’m not even a speaker of a minority or endangered language! So on this day, I encourage everyone to celebrate their individual and unique linguistic repertoires, be they comprised of different languages, accents, signs or vocabularies.

SG: I’ve never particularly liked using the word “tongue” to refer to a language and that was even before I studied linguistics – it was just a gut feeling I had! (Now I really don’t like it as I feel that it reinforces stereotypes surrounding the primacy of speech or spoken languages in communication, so it excludes sign languages for example.) However, 21st February is generally referred to as “mother language day”. I wouldn’t describe any language I speak as my “mother language”, although English would certainly fit the bill, as I have had the privilege to be raised in a family who almost exclusively use English, in a country where this is also the de-facto national language, the language of education and the language which I now use for academic purposes (just like Charlotte!). Yet I have become multilingual through formal education. I have a passion for languages and language learning, which spurred me to study linguistics and become interested in minority and endangered languages and multilingualism. On International Mother Language Day, which not only commemorates “mother languages” but also promotes linguistic diversity and multilingualism, I won’t be celebrating English as my “mother language”, but rather I will celebrate it as one part of my own multilingualism.

KG: To me, the ‘Mother Language Day’ has always been more celebrating linguistic diversity as a global phenomenon than about celebrating any language in particular, not even my own ‘mother’ (and ‘father’) tongue – Polish. I have grown up in a monolingual Polish environment, but one where it was always emphasised that learning other languages is important, and a crucial part of education. The emphasis, however, was always on languages of wider communication. The fact that human cultures and languages are so diverse has always fascinated me, but it wasn’t until I started studying linguistics that I understood something crucial: that the view of languages as ‘more’ and ‘less’ worth learning, depending on the number of speakers, is not an objective truth – it is a value judgement. For those of us who have a luxury of having a state, an infrastructure, an educational system properly supporting our native language or languages, it might seem that language learning is mostly about better professional opportunities. For the speakers of a vast majority of the world’s languages, however, this is not the case. On February 21st, I am celebrating linguistic diversity in all its dazzling beauty, and all languages alike – those that have millions of speakers, and those that have only a handful.

The language-speaker relationship

Dear All,

At Language Landscape, we have decided to re-design our database a bit in 2017. We have recently realised that for all the amazing recordings we have on the website, we actually know very little about how the people who made them and appear in them relate to the languages they speak. At present, when users add recordings to the website, we have no way of knowing – other than listening to them and trying to evaluate their fluency – what their relationship is to the language they chose to record.

We want to include some parameters on the website that would allow us to quantify this in a more precise manner. So far we have thought of three aspects that clarify the speaker-language relationship:

1) The speaker’s relationship to the place where the recording was made (local, tourist, temporary resident,….)

2) language proficiency (fluent, intermediate, beginner,…..)

3) The speaker’s relationship to the language  (mother-tongue, one of multiple mother-tongues, language of education, heritage language, …..)

We really hope to get this right from the start, and that’s why we would like to hear what you think about these categories, and what your thoughts are on any additional categories or choices we should give to our users. The reason for including this extra information is to make the data on the website more transparent, and also easier to use in language-related research.

It would be great to know your thoughts on the relationship of the speaker to the language. We’d also appreciate suggestions for any relevant readings!

January 2015 round up

The days are short and cold in London in January, but our post-holiday blues have been brightened by some great new recordings on Language Landscape. In this new regular feature, we’ll round up some of the materials that have been added to the site in the past month to give you a taste of what’s happening on the map.

First up are some videos of Louisiana Creole French from Michael Gisclair’s YouTube channel. Louisiana Creole French is a group of French dialects spoken in the US state of Lousiana. We have a traditional (and very timely!) New Year’s greeting:

According to the description, this is an expression said every New Year’s Day in certain parts of francophone Louisiana. Traditionally, children would go up to old people and say “Bonne année, grand nez. Fouille dans ta poche et donne-moi de la monnaie.” (roughly translated as: “Happy New Year big nose. Dig in your pocket and give me the money”) It may sound rude, but used in this context, it’s not. The adults would always play along.

We also have a recording of the poem/song ‘Zozo Mokœr’ by Major John Augustin. It was originally published in the New Orleans Times-Democrat and can be found in the book ‘Louisiana Folktales’ by Alcée Fortier (originally published in 1894).

We’re really excited to see the first recordings of an Indo-European language in the United States (yes we know US English has already been added to the map several times, but nowhere in the US yet!) The recordings are mapped in southern Louisiana, the spiritual home of Louisiana French. These aren’t the first recordings added in the US, however – that distinction goes to this recording of Mekeo, followed by this one of New Perce. Like Louisiana French, Nez Perce is mapped where you would expect it, in the northwestern United States, but the recording of Mekeo is mapped many miles from the ancestral home of the language in Papua New Guinea.

These recordings and their locations go to show that the language diversity present in the US remains tantalisingly uncharted in many respects. Dialect variation in US English is fairly well documented, and the distribution of some of the larger minority languages spoken in the US has been mapped, but there is still so much more to find out.

Also added this month is this beguiling video of Frysk from the Praat Mar Frysk YouTube channel. Frysk (or West Frisian) is a West Germanic language spoken in the north of the Netherlands.

The video is an example of ‘surprise poetry’, where a speaker recites a poem in public with no prior warning to their audience. It is part of Praat Mar Frsyk’s programme to encourage more people to use the language in the public sphere. We always welcome positive attempts to raise the status of minority and endangered languages and fully support the aims of this innovative organisation (also have a look at their Frysk-Dutch translation app).

Finally we are excited to announce our very first recording in Colombia! It is of a song in Murui, an indigenous South American language spoken by around 8,000 people in Colombia and Peru. The recording was made in Tabatinga in the far south of Colombia, close to the borders with both Peru and Brazil, by Kasia Wojtylak, a PhD student at James Cook University in Australia. Like Kasia’s recording, many of the recordings of endangered and minority languages on Language Landscape have been added by field linguists and anthropologists who have worked with indigenous communities. It’s great to see so many academics sharing their research in this way.

We hope you enjoyed our round up of some of the new recordings added to Language Landscape in January 2015. Please add your thoughts and comments below. If you’d like the chance to be featured in next month’s round up, please add a recording to the map. You can find lots of hints and tips on making and adding recordings on our Help page. See you next month!

 

How To video

We’re excited to announce the launch of our new How To video! We wanted to make a video which both promotes Language Landscape and also introduces it to new users. If this is your first time on LL, you can find more information about who we are and why we’re doing this on our About page, our FAQs page and also in this blog post.

The How To video was made possible through a successful crowdfunding campaign on Indiegogo. We’d like to say a huge thanks to everyone who contributed to the campaign – we hope you’re as happy as we are with the result!

The video went into production in May 2014. Filmmaker Pablo Zanón gathered together some willing volunteers and shot the live action elements – the people talking in the Record Audio and Record Video sections. These shots were digitally manipulated to create the distinctive silhouette style and further augmented with the animated ‘speech streams’ and recording devices by animator and designer extraordinaire Tom Leisz. The thinking behind this visualization of the recording process was to make it easy for speakers of all languages to understand that everyone can contribute to the website as well as exploring and enjoying the existing content.

The rest of the video introduces the principles of adding recordings and creating projects on the website. We wanted to pick out key elements of the process which we felt were most important for new users. This includes our principle of ‘mapping where it’s happening’. We believe this is the best way to represent the geographical spread of languages as a recording of a language really only represents a moment in a person’s – and therefore also a language’s – life. See this post for more about our ideas and motivations for mapping languages in this way. We also wanted to include a section on how to create your own unique map on Language Landscape by grouping together your recordings in a project. This is a quick and easy process, and you can even add other people’s recordings to your project if they’ve ticked the ‘Other people can edit this recording’ button on their recording. The music was then composed and timed to perfection by Samu Csernak. We’d also like to say a big thanks to Tom Castle for creating the babble of voices that you can hear at around 1:56.

We hope you enjoy the video and it inspires you to add your recordings to Language Landscape. We already have recordings of over 190 languages and dialects mapped where they happened all around the world, but we need your help to build a better map of the world’s linguistic diversity. Please sign up for an account and start mapping your languages today!

 

The Language Landscape Launch

First off, many thanks to all of you who made it to our website launch on the 24th March at the Brunei Gallery in SOAS, University of London. It was really great to see so many new and familiar faces all around us.

For those of you who couldn’t make it, you were missed but not forgotten! Here is a recap of what went down:

18:00 – Guests began arriving and were asked to sign in, select their name badges and buy raffle tickets by our wonderful volunteers Nick Stallman, Marta Poeta, Karin Hedberg, Elizabeth Thaut, Connor Youngberg and Andrew Clark.

Language Landscape welcome banner

Language Landscape welcome banner. Photo credit: Jade Chau

18:30 – With plenty of food and wine to go round, the room really begins to buzz. People have the chance to mingle and interact with Tom Castle’s media installations, Departures, as well as the Language Landscape website.

Participants interacting with the LL website

Participants interacting with the LL website. Photo credit: Jade Chau

19:00 – The members of the Language Landscape  (sans Karolina who unfortunately couldn’t make it on the evening) make some announcements. Ebany and Samantha thank our sponsors and supporters (The Linguistics department at SOAS, SOAS Alumni Friends Fund, UnLtd and HEFCE HEI Initiative/SOAS Student Enterprise Fund, as well as Google Earth Outreach). Despite some minor technical difficulties, Sandy walks us through the new features of the Language Landscape website. Teresa swoops in to save the day with the assistance of Bernard Howard, digital technician of the linguistics department. The crowd is suitably pleased once the minor technical difficulties are solved and the Outreach video is played.

LL Team say their thanks

LL Team say their thanks. Photo credit: Jade Chau

20:15 – Raffle prizes to be won! With the help of a most glamorous assistant by the name of Paul Webley (Director and Principal of SOAS), Charlotte Hemmings announces the winners of the evening’s raffle in the following order:

  • 3rd prize, Rick Stein cook book and Ferrero Rocher chocolates = Lutz Marten
  • 2nd prize, white wine and 4 tickets to the Tower of London = Michelle Barlow
  • 1st prize, champagne and breakfast at Google = Rachel Robertson
Charlotte and her lovely assistant, Paul Webley

Charlotte and her lovely assistant, Paul Webley. Photo Credit: Jade Chau

Thanks again to all who attended the evening! Watch this space for more news.